Mahatma gandhi online thesis library

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Caricature of Henry richard, a prominent advocate of pacifism in the mid-19th century The first peace movements appeared in 181516. In the United States the first such movement was the new York peace society, founded in 1815 by the theologian david Low Dodge, and the massachusetts peace society. It became an active organization, holding regular weekly meetings, and producing literature which was spread as far as Gibraltar and Malta, describing the horrors of war and advocating pacificism on Christian grounds. 34 The london peace society (also known as the society for the Promotion of Permanent and Universal peace) was formed in 1816 to promote permanent and universal peace by the philanthropist William Allen. In the 1840s, British women formed "Olive leaf Circles groups of around 15 to 20 women, to discuss and promote pacifist ideas. 35 The peace movement began to grow in influence by the mid-nineteenth century. The london peace society, under the initiative of American consul to birmingham Elihu burritt and the reverend Henry richard, convened the first International peace congress in London in 1843.

The colonial province was, for the 75 years from 1681 to 1756, essentially unarmed and experienced little or no warfare in that period. From the 16th to the 18th centuries, a number of thinkers devised plans for an international organisation that would promote peace, and reduce or even eliminate the occurrence of war. These included the French politician Duc de sully, the philosophers Émeric Crucé and the Abbe de saint-pierre, and the English quakers William Penn and John Bellers. 29 english 30 Pacifist ideals emerged from two strands of thought that coalesced at the end of the 18th century. One, rooted in the secular Enlightenment, promoted peace as the rational antidote to the world's ills, while the other was a part of the evangelical religious revival that had played an important part in the campaign for the abolition of slavery. Representatives of the former included jean-Jacques rousseau, in Extrait du Projet de paix Perpetuelle de monsieur l'Abbe saint-pierre (1756 31 Immanuel Kant, in his Thoughts on Perpetual peace 32, and Jeremy bentham who proposed the formation of a peace association in 1789. Representative of the latter, was William Wilberforce who thought that strict limits should be imposed on British involvement in the French revolutionary war based on Christian ideals of peace and brotherhood. Bohemian Bernard Bolzano (17811848) taught about the social waste of militarism and the needlessness of war. He urged a total reform of the educational, social, and economic systems that would direct the nation's interests toward peace rather than toward armed conflict between nations. Peace movements edit during the period of the napoleonic Wars, although no formal peace movement was established until the end of hostilities, a significant peace movement animated by universalist ideals did emerge, due to the perception of Britain fighting in a reactionary role and the. Sixteen peace petitions to parliament were signed by members of the public, anti-war and anti- pitt demonstrations convened and peace literature was widely published and disseminated.

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19 27 The quakers were prominent advocates of pacifism, who as early as 1660 had repudiated violence in all forms and adhered to a strictly pacifist interpretation of Christianity. They stated their beliefs in a declaration to king Charles ii : "we utterly deny all outward good wars and strife, and fightings with outward weapons, for any end, or under any pretense whatever; this is our testimony to the whole world. The Spirit of Christ. Which leads us into all truth, will never move us to fight and war against any man with outward weapons, neither for the kingdom of Christ, nor for the kingdoms of this world. 28 Throughout the many 18th century wars in which Britain participated, the quakers maintained a principled commitment not to serve in the army and militia or even to pay the alternative 10 fine. The English quaker William Penn, who founded the Province of Pennsylvania, employed an anti-militarist public policy. Unlike residents of many of the colonies, quakers chose to trade peacefully with the Indians, including for land.

mahatma gandhi online thesis library

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And the one who has no sword must sell his cloak and buy one. pacifists have typically explained that verse as Jesus fulfilling prophecy, since in the next verse, jesus continues to say: "It is written: 'And he was shakespeare numbered with the transgressors and I tell you that this must be fulfilled. Yes, what is written about me is reaching its fulfillment." Others have interpreted the non-pacifist statements in the new Testament to be related to self-defense or to be metaphorical and state that on no occasion did Jesus shed blood or urge others to shed blood. 23 Modern history edit penn's Treaty with the Indians. This treaty was never violated. Beginning in the 16th century, the Protestant Reformation gave rise to a variety of new Christian sects, including the historic peace churches. Foremost among them were the religious Society of Friends (quakers Amish, mennonites, and Church of the Brethren. The humanist writer Desiderius Erasmus was one of the most outspoken pacifists of the renaissance, arguing strongly against warfare in his essays The Praise of Folly (1509) and The complaint of peace (1517).

He was killed for refusing to be conscripted. 22 Christianity edit see also: Christian pacifism Throughout history many have understood Jesus of nazareth to have been a pacifist, 23 drawing on his Sermon on the mount. In the sermon Jesus stated that one should "not resist an evildoer" and promoted his turn the other cheek philosophy. "If anyone strikes you on the right cheek, turn the other also; and if anyone wants to sue you and take your coat, give your cloak as well. Love your enemies, do good to those who hate you, bless those who curse you, pray for those who abuse you." The new Testament story is of Jesus, besides preaching these words, surrendering himself freely to an enemy intent on having him killed and proscribing. There are those, however, who deny that Jesus was a pacifist 23 and state that Jesus never said not to fight, 26 citing examples from the new Testament. One such instance portrays an angry jesus driving dishonest market traders from the temple. 26 A frequently"d passage is luke 22:36: "He said to them, 'but now, the one who has a purse must take it, and likewise a bag.

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A moriori survivor recalled : "The maori commenced to kill us like sheep. We were terrified, fled to the bush, concealed ourselves in holes underground, and in any place to escape our enemies. It was of no avail; we were discovered and killed - men, women and children indiscriminately." 18 Greece edit In Ancient Greece, pacifism seems not to have existed except as a broad moral guideline against violence between individuals. No philosophical program of rejecting violence between states, or rejecting all forms of violence, seems to have existed. Aristophanes, in his play lysistrata, creates the scenario of an Athenian woman's anti-war sex strike during the peloponnesian War of 431404 bc, and the play has gained an international reputation for its anti-war message.

Nevertheless, it is both fictional and comical, and though it offers a pragmatic opposition to the destructiveness of war, its message seems to stem from frustration with the existing conflict (then in its twentieth year) rather than from a philosophical position against violence or war. Equally fictional is the nonviolent protest of Hegetorides of Thasos. Euripides also expressed strong anti-war ideas in his work, especially The boundaries Trojan Women. 19 Roman Empire edit several Roman writers rejected the militarism of Roman society and gave voice to anti-war sentiments, 19 including Propertius, tibullus and ovid. 20 The Stoic Seneca the younger criticised warfare in his book naturales quaestiones (circa 65 AD). 21 Maximilian of Tebessa was a christian conscientious objector.

China edit during the warring States period, the pacifist Mohist School opposed aggressive war between the feudal states. They took this belief into action by using their famed defensive strategies to defend smaller states from invasion from larger states, hoping to dissuade feudal lords from costly warfare. The seven Military Classics of ancient China view warfare negatively, and as a last resort. For example, the Three strategies of huang Shigong says: "As for the military, it is not an auspicious instrument; it is the way of heaven to despise it and the wei liaozi writes: "As for the military, it is an inauspicious instrument; as for conflict. 13 The taoist scripture " Classic of Great peace ( taiping jing foretells "the coming Age of Great peace ( taiping )." 14 The taiping Jing advocates "a world full of peace".

15 Lemba edit The lemba religion of southern French Congo, along with its symbolic herb, is named for pacifism : " lemba, lemba " (peace, peace describes the action of the plant lemba-lemba ( Brillantaisia patula. 16 likewise in Cabinda, " Lemba is the spirit of peace, as its name indicates." 17 Moriori edit moriori tree carving found in the Chatham Islands. The moriori, of the Chatham Islands, practiced pacifism by order of their ancestor Nunuku-whenua. This enabled the moriori to preserve what limited resources they had in their harsh climate, avoiding waste through warfare. In turn, this led to their almost complete annihilation in 1835 by invading Ngāti mutunga and Ngāti tama māori from the taranaki region of the north Island of New zealand. The invading māori killed, enslaved and cannibalised the moriori.

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It is further claimed that such a pacifist could logically argue that violence leads to more undesirable results than non-violence. 8 Police actions and national liberation edit Although all pacifists are opposed to war between nation states, there have been occasions where pacifists have supported military conflict in the case of civil war or revolution. 9 For instance, during the American civil War, both the American peace society and some former members of the non-Resistance society supported the Union 's military campaign, arguing they were carrying out a " police action " against the confederacy, whose act of Secession they. 9 10 Following the outbreak of the Spanish civil War, french pacifist René gérin (18921957) urged support for the Spanish Republic. 11 Gérin argued that the Spanish Nationalists tree were "comparable to an individual enemy" and the republic's war effort was equivalent to the action of a domestic police force suppressing crime. S, some pacifists associated with the new Left supported wars of national liberation and supported groups such as the viet Cong strange and the Algerian fln, arguing peaceful attempts to liberate such nations were no longer viable, and war was thus the only option. 12 Early traditions of pacifism edit vereshchagin 's painting Apotheosis of War (1871) came to be admired as one of the earliest artistic expressions of pacifism Advocacy of pacifism can be found far back in history and literature.

mahatma gandhi online thesis library

Some however, support physical violence for emergency defence of self or others. Others support destruction of property in such emergencies or for conducting symbolic acts of resistance like pouring red paint to represent blood on the outside of military recruiting offices or entering air force bases and hammering on military aircraft. Not all nonviolent resistance (sometimes also called civil resistance ) is based on a find fundamental rejection of all violence in all circumstances. Many leaders and participants in such movements, while recognizing the importance of using non-violent methods in particular circumstances, have not been absolute pacifists. Sometimes, as with the civil rights movement's march from Selma to montgomery in 1965, they have called for armed protection. The interconnections between civil resistance and factors of force are numerous and complex. 7 Absolute pacifism edit An absolute pacifist is generally described by the British Broadcasting Corporation as one who believes that human life is so valuable, that a human should never be killed and war should never be conducted, even in self-defense. The principle is described as difficult to abide by consistently, due to violence not being available as a tool to aid a person who is being harmed or killed.

grounds which can justify resorting to war. War, for the pacifist, is always wrong." In a sense the philosophy is based on the idea that the ends do not justify the means. 6 Moral considerations edit Anti-war activist arrested in San Francisco during the march 2003 protests against the war in Iraq Pacifism may be based on moral principles (a deontological view) or pragmatism (a consequentialist view). Principled pacifism holds that at some point along the spectrum from war to interpersonal physical violence, such violence becomes morally wrong. Pragmatic pacifism holds that the costs of war and interpersonal violence are so substantial that better ways of resolving disputes must be found. Pacifists generally reject theories of Just War. Nonviolence edit some pacifists follow principles of nonviolence, believing that nonviolent action is morally superior and/or most effective.

While modern connotations are recent, having been explicated since the 19th century, ancient references abound. In modern times, interest was revived. Leo tolstoy in his late works, particularly. The kingdom of God Is Within you. Mohandas Gandhi (18691948) propounded the practice of steadfast nonviolent opposition dissertation which he called " satyagraha instrumental in its role in the. Its effectiveness served as inspiration to martin Luther King., james Lawson, james bevel, 2 Thich Nhat Hanh 3 and many others in the civil rights movement. Contents Definition edit pacifism covers a spectrum of views, including the belief that international disputes can and should be peacefully resolved, calls for the abolition of the institutions of the military and war, opposition to any organization of society through governmental force ( anarchist. Historians of pacifism Peter Brock and Thomas paul Socknat define pacifism "in the sense generally accepted in English-speaking areas" as "an unconditional rejection of all forms of warfare".

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For other uses, see. For the economic term, see. Not to be confused with pacificism. A peace sign, which is widely associated with pacifism. World day of Prayer for peace. Assisi, 2011, pacifism is opposition to war, militarism, or violence. The word pacifism was coined by the French peace campaigner Émile Arnaud homework (18641921) and adopted by other peace activists at the tenth Universal peace congress. 1, a related term is ahimsa (to do no harm which is a core philosophy. Hinduism, buddhism, and, jainism.

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