As a rule, though, advertisers have found sex to be a tricky appeal, to be used sparingly. Less controversial and equally fetching are the appeals to our need for affectionate human contact. American mythology upholds autonomous individuals, and social statistics suggest that people are ever more going it alone in their lives, yet the high frequency of affiliative appeals in ads belies this. Or maybe it does not: maybe all the images of companionship are compensation for what Americans privately lack. In any case, the need to associate with others is widely invoked in advertising and is probably the most prevalent appeal. All sorts of goods and services are sold by linking them to our unfulfilled desires to be in good company. According to henry murray, the need for affiliation consists of 24 desires "to plan draw near and enjoyably cooperate or reciprocate with another; to please and win affection of another; to adhere and remain loyal to a friend." The manifestations of this motive can be segmented.
In the content analysis reported in Mass Advertising as Social Forecast, only two percent of ads were found to pander to this motive. Even Playboy ads shy away from sexual appeals: a recent issue contained eighty-three full-page ads, and just four of them (or less than five percent) could be said plan to have sex on their minds. The reason this appeal is so little used is that it is too blaring and tends to obliterate the product information. Nudity in advertising has the effect of reducing brand recall. The people who do remember the product may do so because they have been made indignant by the ad; this is not the response most advertisers seek. To the extent that sexual imagery is used, it conventionally works better on men than women; typically a female figure is offered up to the male reader. A black velvet liquor advertisement displays an attractive woman wearing a tight black outfit, recumbent under the legend, "Feel the velvet." The figure does not have to be horizontal, however, for the appeal to be present, as National Airlines revealed in its "Fly me" campaign. Indeed, there does not even have to be a female in the ad; "Flick my bic" was sufficient to convey the idea to many.
Physiological needs: food, drink, sleep, etc. Let's start with Sex, because this is the appeal which seems to pop up first whenever the topic of advertising is raised. Whole books have been written about this one alone, to find a large audience of mildly titillated readers. Lately, due to campaigns to sell blue jeans, concern with sex in ads has redoubled. The fascinating thing is not how much sex there is in advertising, but how little. Contrary to impressions, unambiguous sex is rare in these messages. Some of this surprising observation may be a matter of definition: the jordache ads with the lithe, blouse-less female astride a similarly clad male is clearly an appeal to the audience's sexual drives, but the same cannot be said about Brooke shields in the calvin. Directed at young women and their credit-card carrying mothers, the image of Miss Shields instead invokes the need to be looked. Buy calvins and you'll be the center of much attention, just as Brooke is, the ads imply; they do not primarily inveigle their target audience's need for sexual intercourse.
Essay 2 ( 150 words )
The need for affiliation 3 The need to resume nurture. The need for guidance. The need to aggress. The need to achieve. The need to dominate. The need for prominence.
The need for attention. The need for autonomy. The need to escape. The need to feel safe. The need for aesthetic sensations. The need to satisfy curiosity.
For example, the reader of a brassiere advertisement sees a partially undraped but blandly unperturbed woman standing in an otherwise commonplace public setting, and may experience certain Sensations; the reader also sees the name "Maidenform a particular brassiere style, and, in tiny print words about. Or, the viewer of a television commercial sees a demonstration with four small boxes labelled 650, 650, 650, and 800; something in the viewer's mind catchers hold of this, as trivial as thoughtful consideration might reveal it. The viewer is also exposed to the name "Anacin its bottle, and its purpose. Sometimes there is an apparently logical llnk between an ad's emotional appeal and its product information. It does not violate common sense that Cadillac automobiles be photographed at country clubs, or that Japan Air Lines be associated with Orientalia.
But there is no real need for the linkage to have a bit of reason behind. Is there anything inherent to the connection between Salem cigarettes and mountains, coke and a smile, miller beer and comradeship? The link being forged in minds between product and appeal is a pre-logical one. People involved in the advertising industry do not necessarily talk in the terms being used here. They are stationed at the sending end of this communications channel, and may think they are up to any number of things-Unique selling Propositions, explosive copywriting, the optimal use of demographics or psychographics, ideal media buys, high recall ratings, or whatever But when attention shifts. Should this occur, the product information comes along behind. When enough advertisements are examined in this light, it becomes clear that the emotional appeals fall into several distinguishable categories, and that every ad is a variation on one of a limited number of basic appeals. While there may be several ways of classifying these appeals, one particular list of fifteen has proven to be especially valuable. Advertisements can appeal to: 1 The need for sex.
Short, essay on, television - important India
This makes sense, since visual communication better suits you more primal levels of the brain. If the viewer of an advertisement actually has the importuned motive, and if the appeal is sufficiently well-fashioned to call it up, then the person can be hooked. The product in the ad may then appeal to take on the semblance of gratification for the summoned motive. Many ads seem to be saying, "If you have this need, then this product will help satisfy." It is a primitive equation, but not an ineffective one for selling. Thus, most advertisements appearing in national media can be understood as having two orders of content. The first is the appeal to deep-running drives in the minds of consumers. The second is information regarding the goods or service being sold: its name, its manufacturer its picture, its packaging, its objecfive attributes, its functions.
There are assumptions about personality underlying advertisers' efforts to communicate via emotional appeals, and while these assumptions have stood the test of time, they still deserve to be aired. Human beings, rainbow it is presumed, walk around with a variety of unfulfilled urges and motives swirling in the bottom half of their minds. Lusts, ambitions, tendernesses, vulnerabilities-they are constantly bubbling up, seeking resolution. These mental forces energize people, but they are too crude and irregular to be given excessive play in the real world. They must be capped with the competent, sensible behavior that permits individuals to get along well in society. However, this upper layer of mental activity, shot through with caution and rationality, is not receptive to advertising's pitches. Advertisers want to circumvent this shell of consciousness if they can, and latch on to one of the lurching, subconscious effect, advertisers over the years have blindly felt their way around the underside of the American psyche, and by trial and error have discovered the. As McLuhan says elsewhere, "Gouging away at the surface of public sales resistance, the ad men are constantly breaking through into the Alice in Wonderland territory behind the looking glass, which is the world of sub-rational impulses and appefltes." An advertisement communicates by making use. Some few ads have their emotional appeal in the text but for the greater number by far the appeal is contained in the artwork.
commercial by any means available-including the emotional appeals that some observers have held to be abhorrent and underhanded. Fowles i advertising's Fifteen Basic Appeals. The use of subconscious appeals is a comment not only on conditions among sellers. As time has gone by, buyers have become stoutly resistant to advertisements. We live in a blizzard of these messages and have learned to turn up our collars and ward off most of them. A study done a few years ago at Harvard University's Graduate School of Business Administration ventured that the average American is exposed to some 500 ads daily from television, newspapers, magazines, radio, billboards, direct mail, and. If for no other reason than to preserve one's sanity, a filter must be developed in every mind to lower the number of ads a person is actually aware of-a number this particular study estimate at about seventy-five ads per day. (Of these, only twelve typically produced a reaction-nine positive and three negative, on the average.) to be among the few messages that do manage to gain access to minds, advertisers must be strategic, perhaps even a little underhanded at times.
The nature of effective advertisements was recognized full well by the dissertation late media philosopher Marshall McLuhan. Media, the first Sentence of the section on advertising reads, "The con- tinuous pressure is to create ads more and more in the image of audience motives and desires. by giving form to people's deep-lying desires and picturing states of being that individuals privately yearns for, advertisers have the best chance of arresting attention and affecting communication. And that is the immediate goal of advertising: to tug at our psychological shirts sleeves amd slow us down long enough for a word or two about whatever is being sold. We glance at a picture of a solitary rancher at work, and "Marlboro" slips into our minds. Advertisers (I'm using the term as shorthand for both the product's manufacturers, who bring the ambition and money to the process, and the advertising agencies, who supply the know-how) are ever more compelled to invoke consumers' drives and longings; this is the "continuous pressure" McLuhan. Over the past century, the American marketplace has grown increasingly congested as more and more products have entered into the frenzied competition after the public's dollars. The economies of other nations are quieter than ours since the volume of goods being hawked does not so greatly exceed demand.
Advantages And Disadvantages
Ml, excerpt from Common Culture: reading and Writing About American Popular. Michael Petracca, madeleine sorapure. Upper Saddle river: Prentice hall, 1998. Advertising's Fifteen Basic Appeals, jib Fowles, in the following essay, jib Fowles looks at how advertisements work by examining essay the emotional, subrational appeals that they employ. We are confronted daily by hundreds of fads, only a few of which actually attract our attention. These few do so, according to fowles, through "something primary and prim itive, an emotional appeal, that in effect is the thin edge of the wedge, trying to find its way into a mind." Drawing on research done by the psychologist Henry. Murray, fowles describes fifteen emotional appeals or wedges that advertisements exploit. Underlying Fowles's psychological analysis of advertising is the assumption that advertisers try to circumvent the logical, cautious, skeptical powers we develop as consumers, to reach, instead, the "unfulfilled urges and motives swirling in the bottom half of our minds." In Fowles's view, consumers are well.