Why have i chosen to examine fish instead of people, which at first glance might seem to be the paperless more logical choice? Genre-painting as such has occupied a marginal position from the very origins of Estonian art. Prior to world War ii, this would seem to have been the result of an intentional reticence. It was as if genre-painting had crawled into the shadows of other forms such as still-life or landscape painting. In the 1950s genre-painting was often perceived as representing a form of political oppression. As a result, humans enter into Estonian art as full-fledged elements only in the 1960s, and this coincides with the disfavour of literariness, as mentioned above. At the same time, it seems that the figure of the fish exhibits the characteristics and contains the essence of pictorial narrative much more clearly and surely than more obviously narrative art. As such it should then be possible to extend the relationships and types found for the fish character to other characters. Fish have been portrayed in Estonian art with surprising frequency.
We can quite unambiguously state that in the case of a pictorial narrative, the only element that is missing is a definite, organised way of depicting the series of events sequenced according to the intentions of the author. All this is left open. Thus in the case of pictorial narrative the basic categories of classical narratology (compare genette 1980) - time (sequence, tempo, frequency) and in part also expression - are either vague or completely useless. A picture is the cross-section of a story; and the preceding and following events can be unravelled in the consciousness of the viewer only in the process of reading the story. The way something is retold - its temporal, emotional or physical distance assumes primary importance. I suggest that a third fixed point in the case of pictorial narrative is the character. I would maintain that while theoretically pictorial narrative depends on its reading, and as such the organization of events therein are weaker than in the case of verbal narrative, the system of the characters therein is nonetheless much more significant reviews than in verbal narrative. Fish in the following I will discuss fish as an example of the character, that is to say i will examine the portrayal of fish in visual art. Subsumed under this general heading or overall category are various species (flounders, ides, pikes) as mere concrete manifestations of fish.
Through this, the temporal dimensions of the story emerge. As a matter of fact, the poet who treats of a well-known story or well-known characters has a great advantage. the artist has this advantage, too, when his subject is not new to us, when we recognize at first glance the intent and meaning of his entire composition, and when we not only see that his characters are speaking, but also hear what they. In Lessing's opinion the originality or novelty of the subject matter is not of prime importance to the artist. Subject matter that is already familiar will increase the impact of the painting and make it easier for it to have an effect. «Objects or parts of objects which follow one another are called action. Accordingly, actions are the true subjects of poetry.» (Lessing 1984: 78). In poetry bodies can be depicted only by suggestion and through their actions. In painting, everything happens at the same time, everything exists side by side and only one moment of the action can be depicted.
History of All-meat diets - diagnosis:Diet
The pain of body and the nobility of soul are distributed and weighed out, as it were, over the entire figure with equal intensity. In this description by winckelmann, laocoön has already in a way become a rhetorical figure. Lessing continues in the same vein (though he might not entirely agree with all of Winckelmann's propositions). Lessing's thoughts can be summarized as follows: in reproducing anything the material limitations of art confine it to the depiction of a single moment in time; in painting this one moment can only be used with reference to a single vantage point; a work. Lessing feels that a moment of extreme grammar passion cannot be conducive to such an effect. The apparent permanence of something transitory is not suitable for stimulating the imagination. In Lessing's opinion, at the heart of a painting lies a story.
The only matter open to debate is how the story is to be formulated. If we define storytelling and narrative as the setting forth of a story, then the existence of the story is the only condition, or rather the only possibility for the existence of storytelling and narrative. Looked at from the perspective established by lessing, we must consider a painting as narrative. At the same time, a story exists at a point in time along with all of our prior knowledge of what has come before and what is to follow. And inevitably some sort of relationship develops between the moment depicted and the moments preceding and following.
As such, it is impossible to speak of purely visual or purely verbal forms of expression. Visual art nevertheless often suffers under linguistic terrorism - language with its conceptions and categories, its established connections, forces itself on non-discrete visual experience. It hinders the instinctive experience gained from merely looking. This, the oppressive bed of language, is more or less what art has in this century repeatedly tried to liberate itself from (compare the post-Stalinist identification of «bad art» with the above-mentioned notion of «literariness the popularity of the title Untitled, abstract art. Laocoön gotthold Ephraim Lessing (1729-1781) presented his doctrine in his most significant work on aesthetics, «laokoon oder über die grenzen der Malerei und poesie» ( laocoön: An Essay on the limits of painting and poetry ) (1766 clearly distinguishing between classical poetry and painting.
In essence this work targeted the so-called «shining antithesis» that 'poetry is painting that speaks which was attributed to the ancient Greek lyricist Simonides. It became widespread through Horatius' maxim ut pictura poesis (poetry is like painting). Lessing's work, as its name implies, originates in the legend of laocoön. The author bases his arguments on two earlier reworkings of the legend: the well-known group of statuary representing laocoön's death as described by winckelmann, and the description of the same in the second song of Virgil's Aeneid. Such a soul is depicted in laocoön's face - and not only in his face - under the most violent suffering. The pain is revealed in every muscle and sinew of his body, and one can almost feel it oneself in the painful contraction of the abdomen without looking at the face or other parts of the body at all. However, this pain expresses itself without any sign of rage either in his face or in his posture. He does not raise his voice in a terrible scream, which Virgil describes his laokoön as doing; the way in which his mouth is open does not permit. Rather he emits the anxious and subdued sigh described by sadelot.
A voice for Animals - hennet
The other verbal extreme - poetry - is linked more to music in its sounds and rhythms. But narrative is not the essential manifestation of visual expression. Literariness is the quality a picture possesses that allows it to be expressed or «translated» through words. It is the approximation of a picture to words, that part of a picture that can be verbalised. This implies that it is possible for a pictorial narrative to exist. That is, a narrative need not exist only in verbal form. Only abstract art, abstract form, texture and architecture are visual to the extreme - and here too we see a connection to music. At the same time, visual narrative can also plan make reference to other senses such as sight or smell.
Narrative never prefers good literature to bad: international, transhistorical, transcultural, narrative is there, like life. (Barthes 1994: 95) The success of visual narrative depends on one «reading» significantly more into it than in the case of written narrative. An analogy here might about be a well-designed hypertext, in which the chronology of events or the order of their «reading» is not dictated by the author. In this respect the narrative will be the hypertext, as it has already been read or has taken place. The hypertext then itself becomes a potential narrative, a collection of motifs. Nevertheless, one of the basic premises here would have to be the fact that narrative is by its very nature a form of verbal expression. Narrative can be considered to be the most extreme form of verbal expression, a way of creating a number of possible worlds, or, by using words, of creating something that does not exist.
actual event or truly «narrates a story» in the most direct sense. A narrative thread can, however, be found even in non-figurative art, for example in a repeatedly"d black square (e.g. Suprematicheskii skaz about 2 Squares, berlin 1922). Even a" or an allusion to some existing well-known piece of art or literature could be seen as a retelling of that same work. Current developments in art have made it necessary to consider the increasingly important role of narrative. Once again, art is being used for the purpose of saying something, of imparting some social significance. Understandably, the threshold established for it and the interpretation of its interdependence will limit its use. Here we can compare roland Barthes' ideas: narrative can be supported by articulated speech, oral or written, by images, fixed or moving, by gesture, and by the organised combination of all these substances; it is present in myth, legend, fable, tale, tragedy, comedy, epic, history. Moreover, in these almost infinite forms, narrative occurs in all periods, places and societies; narrative begins with the very history of humanity; there is not, nor has there ever been, a people anywhere without a narrative.
As a result, abstract art - art that consistently uses only the visual language unique to it - was seen as the purest form of art. It was already possible to perceive a certain parallel to this in the directions taken by art and theories of art and literature in the. In the 1950s and 1960s a less «literary» literature (poetry, laconic prose, literary theory) had emerged along with abstract art, minimalism etc. By the end of the 1970s, however, narrative had already begun to make a stealthy comeback in art. Its origins could already be seen in the period of Pop Art, and this process has continued and intensified to this day. In terms of theory itself, a concentration on poetics plan has been replaced by the expansion of narratology in many diverse disciplines. Consequently, the problems of the narrative in visual art need to be revisited; whether and to what extent the narrative is foreign to visual art or can be avoided, and to what extent it is unavoidable. The basic assumptions behind this article can be summed up as follows: Narrative has a greater role to play in visual art than is commonly believed. I will take it for granted that narrative is an integral part of both figurative as well as abstract art.
Fifty Orwell Essays - project Gutenberg Australia
Fish: concerning characters and action, fISH: concerning characters and action, virve sarapik. And God said, 'let the waters bring forth swarms of living creatures, and let birds fly above the earth across the firmament of the heavens.' (Gen. 1:20 my hook lay between the moon's wallpaper molars and suddenly from the throat of that platter a large fish leapt onto its bait. I pulled it out and threw it into the hungry belly of my skiff where i heard it flip-flop a few times until silence reached out its hand to the fish. (kivikas 1919 pictorial narrative, artistic principles in the 1960s and 1970s made it axiomatic that literariness and especially excessive literary narrative exerted a negative influence on good art. A piece of visual art did not need to be narrative. In other words, it did not have to be expressible in narrative form. Rather, it needed to make use of the visual means that were inherent.