Glazed windows, which were rare during the medieval period, and did not become commonplace until the eighteenth century, meant that shop interiors were dark places. Outside the markets, goods were rarely out wallpaper on display and the service counter was unknown. Shoppers had relatively few opportunities to inspect the merchandise prior to consumption. Many stores had openings onto the street from which they served customers. 27 Outside the major cities, most consumable purchases were made through markets or fairs. Markets were held daily in the more populous towns and cities or weekly in the more sparsely populated rural districts. Markets sold fresh produce; fruit, vegetables, baked goods, meat, poultry, fish and some ready to eat foodstuffs; while fairs operated on a periodic cycle and were almost always associated with a religious festival. 28 fairs sold non-perishables such as farm tools, homewares, furniture, rugs and ceramics. Market towns dotted the medieval European landscape while itinerant vendors supplied less populated areas or hard-to-reach districts.
Known as " The rows" this medieval shopping arcade is believed to be the first of its kind in Europe. 22 Fragments of Chester's Medieval Row, which is believed to date to the mid-13th century, can still be found in Cheshire. 23 In the 13th or 14th century, another arcade with several shops was recorded at Drapery row in Winchester. 24 The emergence of street names such as Drapery row, mercer's Lane and Ironmonger Lane in the medieval period suggests that twist permanent shops were becoming more commonplace. A typical 17th century shop, with customers being served through an opening onto the street Medieval shops had little in common with their modern equivalent. As late as the 16th century, london's shops were described as little more than "rude booths" and their owners "bawled as loudly as the itinerants." 25 Shopfronts typically had a front door with two wider openings on either side, each covered with shutters. The shutters were designed to open so that the top portion formed a canopy while the bottom was fitted with legs so that it could serve as a shopboard. 26 Cox and Dannehl suggest that the medieval shopper's experience was very different.
17 From as early as 200 bce, chinese packaging and branding was used to signal family, place names and product quality, and the use of government imposed product branding was used between 600 and 900. 18 Eckhart and Bengtsson have argued that during the song Dynasty (9601127 Chinese society developed a consumerist culture, where a high level of consumption was attainable for a wide variety of ordinary consumers rather than just the elite. 19 The rise of a consumer culture led to the commercial investment in carefully managed company image, retail signage, symbolic brands, trademark protection and sophisticated brand concepts. 20 Retailing in Medieval Europe edit The row, Chester, Cheshire, england,. 1895; a unique medieval shopping arcade In Medieval England and Europe, relatively few permanent shops were to be found; instead customers walked into the tradesman's workshops where they discussed purchasing options directly with tradesmen. In 13th century london, mercers and haberdashers were known to exist and grocers sold "miscellaneous small wares as well as spices and medicines" but fish and other perishables were sold through markets, costermongers, hucksters, peddlers or other type of itinerant vendor. 21 In the more populous cities, a small number of shops were beginning to emerge by the 13th century. In Chester, a medieval covered shopping arcade represented a major innovation that attracted shoppers from many miles around.
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11 Phoenician inscriptions have been found in archaeological sites at a number of former Phoenician cities and colonies around the mediterranean, such as Byblos (in present-day lebanon ) and Carthage in North Africa. 12 Grand bazaar, Istanbul (interior). Established in 1455, it is thought to be the oldest continuously operating covered market In the Graeco-roman world, the market primarily served the local peasantry. Local producers, who were generally poor, would sell small surpluses from their individual farming activities, purchase minor farm equipment and also buy a few luxuries for their homes. Major producers such as the great estates were sufficiently attractive for merchants to call directly at their farm-gates, obviating the producers' need to attend local markets.
The very wealthy landowners managed their own distribution, which may have involved exporting and importing. The nature of export markets in antiquity is well documented in ancient sources and archaeological case studies. 13 The romans preferred to purchase goods responsibility from specific places: oysters from Londinium, cinnamon from a specific mountain in Arabia, and these place-based preferences stimulated trade throughout Europe and the middle east. 14 Markets were also important centres of social life. 15 The rise of retailing and marketing in England and Europe has been extensively studied, but less is known about developments elsewhere. 16 nevertheless, recent research suggests that China exhibited a rich history of early retail systems.
These markets typically occupied a place in the town's centre. Surrounding the market, skilled artisans, such as metal-workers and leather workers, occupied permanent premises in alleys that led to the open market-place. These artisans may have sold wares directly from their premises, but also prepared goods for sale on market days. 7 In ancient Greece markets operated within the agora, an open space where, on market days, goods were displayed on mats or temporary stalls. In ancient Rome, trade took place in the forum. Rome had two forums; the forum Romanum and Trajan's Forum.
The latter was a vast expanse, comprising multiple buildings with shops on four levels. The roman forum was arguably the earliest example of a permanent retail shop-front. 8 In antiquity, exchange involved direct selling via merchants or peddlers and bartering systems were commonplace. 9 The Phoenicians, noted for their seafaring skills, plied their ships across the mediterranean, becoming a major trading power by the 9th century bce. The Phoenicians imported and exported wood, textiles, glass and produce such as wine, oil, dried fruit and nuts. Their trading skills necessitated a network of colonies along the mediterranean coast, stretching from modern day crete through to tangiers and onto sardinia 10 The Phoenicians not only traded in tangible goods, but were also instrumental in transporting culture. The Phoenician's extensive trade networks necessitated considerable book-keeping and correspondence. In around 1500 bce, the Phoenicians developed a consonantal alphabet which was much easier to learn that the complex scripts used in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. Phoenician traders and merchants were largely responsible for spreading their alphabet around the region.
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Different jurisdictions set parameters for the internet ratio of consumer to business sales that define a retail business. History edit see also: History of merchants ; History of the market place ; History of marketing Retailing in antiquity edit marketplace at Trajan's Forum, the earliest known example of permanent retail shopfronts Retail markets have existed since ancient times. Archaeological evidence for trade, probably involving barter systems, dates back more than 10,000 years. As civilizations grew, barter was replaced with retail trade involving coinage. Selling and buying is thought to have emerged in Asia minor (modern essay Turkey) in around the 7th millennium bce. 5 Gharipour points to evidence of primitive shops and trade centres in sialk hills in Kashan (6000 bce catalk huyuk in modern-day turkey (7,5005,700 bce jericho (2600 bce) and Susa (4000 bce). 6 Open air, public markets were known in ancient Babylonia, assyria, phoenicia and Egypt.
A retailer is any person or organisation is a reseller who sells goods or services directly to consumers or end-users. 2 Some retailers may sell to business customers, and summary such sales are termed non-retail activity. In some jurisdictions or regions, legal definitions of retail specify that at least 80 percent of sales activity must be to end-users. 3 Retailing often occurs in retail stores or service establishments, but may also occur through direct selling such as through vending machines, door-to-door sales or electronic channels. 4 Although the idea of retail is often associated with the purchase of goods, the term may be applied to service-providers that sell to consumers. Retail service providers include retail banking, tourism, insurance, private healthcare, private education, private security firms, legal firms, publishers, public transport and others. For example, a tourism provider might have a retail division that books travel and accommodation for consumers plus a wholesale division that purchases blocks of accommodation, hospitality, transport and sightseeing which are subsequently packaged into a holiday tour for sale to retail travel agents. Some retailers badge their stores as "wholesale outlets" offering "wholesale prices." While this practice may encourage consumers to imagine that they have access to lower prices, while being prepared to trade-off reduced prices for cramped in-store environments, in a strict legal sense, a store that.
in a diverse range of types and in many different contexts from strip shopping centres in residential streets through to large, indoor shopping malls. Shopping streets may restrict traffic to pedestrians only. Sometimes a shopping street has a partial or full roof to create a more comfortable shopping environment protecting customers from various types of weather conditions such as extreme temperatures, winds or precipitation. Forms of non-shop retailing include online retailing (a type of electronic-commerce used for business-to-consumer ( B2C ) transactions) and mail order. Contents Etymology edit retail comes from the Old French word tailler, which means "to cut off, clip, pare, divide" in terms of tailoring (1365). It was first recorded as a noun with the meaning of a "sale in small quantities" in 1433 (from the middle French retail, "piece cut off, shred, scrap, paring. 1 As in the French, the word, retail, in both Dutch and German, also refers to the sale of small quantities of items. Definition and explanation edit retail refers to the activity of reselling.
Recreational shopping often involves window shopping and browsing: it does not always result in a purchase. Retail markets and shops have a very ancient history, dating back to antiquity. Some of the earliest retailers were itinerant peddlers. Over the centuries, retail shops were transformed from little more than "rude booths" to the sophisticated shopping malls of the modern era. Most modern retailers typically make a variety of strategic level decisions including the type of store, the market to be served, the optimal product assortment, customer service, supporting services mattress and the store's overall market positioning. Once the strategic retail plan is in place, retailers devise the retail mix which includes product, price, place, promotion, personnel and presentation. In the digital age, an increasing number of retailers are seeking to reach broader markets by selling through multiple channels, including both bricks and mortar and online retailing.
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"Retail stores" redirects here. For the comic strip by norm feuti, see. Retail is the process of selling consumer goods or services to customers through multiple channels of distribution to earn a profit. Retailers satisfy demand identified through a supply chain. The oliver term "retailer" is typically applied where a service provider fills the small orders of a large number of individuals, who are end-users, rather than large orders of a small number of wholesale, corporate or government clientele. Shopping generally refers to the act of buying products. Sometimes this is done to obtain final goods, including necessities such as food and clothing; sometimes it takes place as a recreational activity.